In our research, we didn’t find a specific, widely cited definition of organizational learning, different authors give different descriptions of the concept. Indeed Crossan et al (2011) states at this point, there is no widely accepted organizational learning theory up to now. However, the importance of learning capability, both individual and organization, has been continually emphasized. Through more than 30 years of development, theorist have widely studied organisational learning as related to the individual, group culture, process, knowledge, innovation, creativity, as well as politics and power.
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Theorist have developed a variety of models. Amongst the well recognized include:

1. Argyris and Schön (1978): Single loop and double loop
2. Argyris (1990 ), P. M. Senge (1994): The Ladder of Inference
3. Kolb (1984): Experiential learning cycle
4. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995): Learning as knowledge transformation
5. Abrahamson (1991) : Fads and fashions
6. Crossan el al (1999) : Intuiting, Interpreting, Integrating, Institutionalistion (4I)

Debate regarding confusion around two general concepts, organisational learning and learning organisation, appears to have died down (Easterby-Smith et al., 2000). A learning organisation defines a company that facilitates the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself. Learning organisations develop as a result of the pressures facing modern organisations and enables them to remain competitive in the business environment. Organisations need to learn more than ever as they confront mounting forces such as intensifying competition, advances in technology, and shifts in customer preferences. Companies that become a learning organisation, result in a compelling vision of an organisation made up of employees skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge. These employees can help their firms cultivate tolerance, foster open discussion, and think holistically and systemically.Such learning organisations would be able to adapt to the unpredictable more quickly than their competitors could.


Finally, time to test your organisation

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